The trophies and medals hanging from your walls have that distinct shine thanks to PVD coating.
The process of vacuum metallization is essentially a form of physical vapor deposition. The process requires the combination of both non-metals and metals to evaporate and then deposit into a thin film. The most common metal used in vacuum metallization is aluminum because of its’ thermodynamic and reflective properties.
Vacuum metalizing gives off a highly reflective surface that’s similar to chrome. Also, when using aluminum, its low cost enables there to be an increase in production. This process also can be tinted for various colors such as: brass, copper, gold, blue, green, and black chrome.
Vacuum Metallization in Plastic Parts
Visually, if you were to coat a piece of plastic with metal, you wouldn’t expect there to be an increase in both gloss and reflectivity.
Through vacuum metallization, metallic properties such as abrasion resistance and electrical conductivity can also be added to plastic components. Upon completion of metallization, these now-metalized components are treated in the same light as metal plated parts. Although they carry the properties of metals, they tend to be lower in weight and have a high corrosion resistance as well. In addition, the electrical conductivity that now encompasses the plastic part can be controlled to avoid electrical surges.
Physical vapor deposition coating, or PVD coating, can be found in a variety of household items that are commonly found. Products such as: lamp reflectors, emblems, trophies, fishing lures, and advertising display items are only some of the products that are vacuum metalized. The immense amount of gloss and shine are what makes this method stand out.
Hero of Alexandria described the concept of steam powered engine, and was able to reproduce it, long before it was ever utilized in a factory setting. He was representative of a larger, Hellenestic movement toward an understanding of science and reason. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest inventors in the history of civilization.
To understand Hero, one must first understand that the period in which he lived was a transition. Greek ideals for mathematics, such as the work of Pythogoras, formed the basis for Hellenistic research but they were considered outdated ideals in many cases. The important concepts, such as empirical and deliberate experimentation, were kept and modified accordingly.
Hero likely taught in the Musaeum, which was created by Ptolomy, and was known to be an engineer. He taught physics and pneumatics, but these fields were not necessarily formalized. It’s likely he taught a variety of concepts in addition to these core concepts.
Hero created an aeolipile, which was similar to a rocket engine. Jets of steam exited a turbine, fueled by water boiling in a pan below, to create motion. He is also credited with the concept of the world’s first vending machine. One inserted a coin, which rested on a platform. The weight of the coin was counterbalanced, and holy water was dispensed for payment. Once the allotment was reached, the counter balance would cause the coin to drop into a pan and reset the valve. Hero’s quests for automation did not stop at snacks. He created a wind-powered organ, and a fountain that operated on self-contained hydrostatic energy.